Sentence Diagrams

Enhanced Text Diagrams

On an Alpheios Enhanced Text, after looking up a word, click on Diagram in the Alpheios popup to access a diagram of the sentence in the form of a dependency tree. The diagram view includes mouseover tooltips displaying abbreviated morphological information for each word. Click on the + and - buttons to expand and collapse individual nodes within the tree.

See About Dependency Trees for more information.

My Diagrams

The My Diagrams feature allows you to create, edit and save dependency tree diagrams of sentences of your choice, in a number of supported formats. To access this feature, click on the User Tools button on the Alpheios toolbar and select "My Diagrams". This feature is available any time the Alpheios tools are enabled.
Diagram Menu
User Diagram
To add and edit a new sentence, type the sentence in the 'Input Text' box and click on the "Add" button. To edit a previously saved sentence, highlight the sentence and double-click, or click on the "Edit" button. The diagram editor will open in a new window.
Diagram Editor
The diagram editor has three tools for modifying the diagram.

  • Tree Tool (Click on the Tree icon to select)

    Modifies the connections between words.

    To use the tool:

    • Click on a word to move it. (Do not hold down the mouse button.)
    • Use the mouse to move the subtree rooted at the word.
    • Click on the desired parent word to form a new relationship.
  • Label Tool (Click on the label icon to select)

    Edits both the labels on the arcs (the relationship of a child to its parent word) and the properties of the words themselves: lemma (dictionary form) and morphology (grammatical attributes like part of speech, gender, etc.).

    To edit a relationship between words:

    • Click on an arc label. A popup form will appear. The number of pull-down menus in the popup (one or two) and the values in the menus depend on the treebank format in use. The menus are populated with the last values used.
    • Select desired values in the form.
    • Click on the OK button or hit the Enter key to make the change.
    • Click on the Cancel button or hit the Escape key to cancel the operation.

    To edit the properties of a word:

    • Click on a word. A popup form will appear. If the treebank format includes lemmas, there will be a textbox for entering/editing the lemma. A number of pull-down menus will also be included, the number and values of the menus depending on the treebank format in use. The menus are populated with the current values from the word that was selected.
    • Select desired values in the form.
    • Click on the OK button or hit the Enter key to make the change.
    • Click on the Cancel button or hit the Escape key to cancel the operation.
    • Click on the Reset button to restore the values shown when the form was first displayed.
  • Ellipsis Tool (Click on the Ellipsis icon to select)

    Adds and removes nodes corresponding to implied words. This tool is not available for all diagram formats.

    To use the tool:

    • Click on a regular word to insert an ellipsis node. The new node will be the parent of the selected word and a child of the selected word's former parent.
    • Click on an ellipsis node to remove it. All children of the ellipsis node will become children of the ellipsis node's parent.

    Once an ellipsis node has been created, it can be manipulated using the Tree and Label tools just like any other word in the sentence, except that the Label tool does not work on the ellipsis node itself since there are no properties to be edited.

Click on the Undo and Redo icons to undo or redo your last edit. Click on the Save icon to save your edits. See also the Key at the bottom of the diagram window for additional information, tips and keyboard shortcuts.

The + and - buttons can be used to expand and collapse individual nodes within the tree. Click on the Expansion Controls icon to suppress or display the + and - buttons.

The My Diagrams feature requires that the User Data feature be enabled. See User Data for more information.

About Dependency Trees

A dependency tree is a graphical representation of a sentence parsed using a dependency grammar. The nodes in the tree correspond to words in the sentence being parsed (and sometimes to special synthesized nodes). The arcs correspond to dependency relations between a "head" word, at the upper end of an arc, and the dependent words at the lower ends of the arcs connected to the head word. The grammatical relations between head and dependent words are such things as subject, object, modifier, etc.

A full discussion of the topic of dependency grammars is beyond the scope of this documentation, but a web search will find relevant resources, for example Dependency grammar.

A dependency treebank is a collection of sentences, often in a single language, parsed using a dependency grammar. In addition to the dependency relations between words, a treebank often incorporates information about the lemma ("dictionary form") as well as morphological information (part of speech, tense, case, etc.) about each word. The collection of possible values for dependency relations and morphological categories we refer to as the "treebank format".

The tree editor supports several formats used by existing dependency treebanks:

The Ancient Language Dependency Treebank

This is a treebank of Latin and ancient Greek texts, created by the Perseus Project at Tufts University.

For more information on the treebank format see Greek and Latin annotation guidelines.

Columbia Arabic Treebank (or CATiB)

This is a treebank of Arabic texts, created by the Columbia University Center for Computational Learning Systems.

For more information on the treebank format see Syntactic Annotation in the Columbia Arabic Treebank.

PROIEL (Pragmatic Resources in Old Indo-European Languages) Treebank

This is a treebank of the New Testament in a number of Indo-European languages, created by the PROIEL project at the University of Oslo.

For more information on the treebank format see PROIEL Guidelines for Annotation. The PROIEL annotation has several features, such as slash notation, which are not currently supported by the Alpheios tree editor.